Average Year - Climate at UFS Zugspitze


This statistical review of climate at the Zugspitze Environmental Research Station (UFS) is based on unfiltered minute-data for temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as provided by the German Weather Service (DWD). Suspiciously outstanding measurements were eliminated by comparing them with a running mean over a 30 minute and a 12 hour time window. Measurements with differences of three standard deviations and more were treated as missing values. Monthly aggregated data (which you can find here) is combined to form this average year:


Air Pressure
air pressure
Relative Humidity
Wind Speed
Wind Speed
Wind Direction
Wind Direction




The average of monthly mean temperatures since the year 2001 is visualized in grey with the shaded ribbon indicating plus/minus one standard deviation of monthly means. The red line shows the highest measured value in each respective month and blue is giving the lowest one.

Temperature at UFS Schneefernerhaus follows a clear yearly cycle, typical for this latitude in the northern hemisphere. Lowest temperatures are measured in February and highest temperatures in July.


Air Pressure

Mean values of air pressure at UFS Zugspitze ( = 2650 m above sea-level) are plotted in dark blue with the shaded area indicating the range of plus/minus one standard deviation.

The average air pressure follows the same yearly cycle as the temperature: High average values of above 740hPa in summer compared to relatively low values below 730 hPa in winter.


Relative Humidity

Average relative humidity is plotted in blue with the light blue ribbon indicating the range of one standard deviation of the underlying monthly means. This relative humidity timeseries only started mid 2001.

Relative Humidity ranges from very humid months in summer with averages above 80% to dryer months in winter with around 70%. Average humidity seems to drop quite sudden in October and to rise back slowly during spring.



The average wind speed is calculated from the monthly means you find here. The shaded area is giving the range of plus/minus one standard deviation of monthly means of the respective month.

Average wind speed at the Schneefernerhaus ranges, between ca. 3.6 m/s in Winter and 2.5 m/s in summer.


Wind Direction

To calculate the average wind direction, minute values with a given wind direction in degrees are sorted into eight bins. The length of bars indicates the percentage of (minute-)measurements in which the respective wind direction occurred. Colours add information regarding the wind speed coming from those very directions, differentiating between 0-3 m/s (dark blue), 3-6 m/s (blue), 6-9 m/s (cyan), 9-12 m/s (greenish-yellow) and 12-15 m/s (orange).

Easterly and westerly winds are most common, with stronger winds coming rather from west than from east.

The following figure gives wind directions and speed for the months January to December: Wind speed in winter is generally higher than in summer months. Westerlies dominate throughout the year; however, a high occurrence of easterly wind is measured in spring months.